At CtrlTech, we provide best temperature monitoring, control and humidity control solution through humidity sensors and solutions
Data centres are the brains of almost any business, as their success is contingent upon efficient and reliable software operations.
With a large concentration of powerful hardware in one location, data centres must be kept cool and protected from external and internal environmental impacts. As a result, data centres use a lot of electricity. How might their energy efficiency and PUE (power utilisation effectiveness) be increased?
Calculate it properly. One of the most critical needs for lowering your cooling expenses is accurate measurement of the circumstances in the first place. Your temperature management plan for the data centre is only as good as your measurement equipment, and even minor measurement errors can drastically increase your energy consumption.
Create it prudently. For instance, may you profit from air-side economizers or evaporative coolers? Select the appropriate humidity parameter for the instrument and the appropriate instrument for the measurement site.
Maintain the condition of your instruments. All instruments require routine maintenance. Select equipment with low long-term drift and low maintenance requirements, and build a robust servicing and calibration strategy for your data centre.
Temperature Sensors are used to determine the amount of heat or cold generated by an object or system. It is capable of sensing/detecting any physical change in that temperature and outputs an analogue or digital signal.
A temperature sensor is classified physically into two categories: contact temperature sensors and non-contact temperature sensors. Contact temperature sensors must make physical contact with the object being sensed and monitor temperature changes via conduction.on-contact temperature sensors monitor temperature changes via convection and radiation.
Temperature measurement devices include thermocouples, thermisters, resistance temperature detectors (RTD), and infrared types. Thermocouples are the most versatile, cost-effective, and have a wide operating temperature range (up to 1200 deg C typical). These are formed by joining two dissimilar metal wires at their ends to form the sensing junction. When used in conjunction with a reference junction, the voltage potential represents the temperature difference between the reference junction and the actual temperature.
Thermisters are semiconductor devices whose resistance varies in response to changes in temperature. They are suitable for extremely sensitive measurements over a narrow temperature range of up to 100 deg C. Temperature and resistance have a nonlinear relationship. RTDs take advantage of the fact that the resistance of a metal varies with temperature. They are linear over a wide range, extremely stable, and provide superior accuracy and resolution to thermocouples. Precision wire, typically made of platinum, is used as the sensing element in RTDs.
Sensors of the infrared type use radiation heat to determine the temperature at a distance. These noncontact sensors can also be used to generate a thermal map of a surface by sensing its field of vision.
Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air. The amount of water vapour in the air has an effect on human comfort and a variety of industrial processes. Water vapour also has an effect on a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes.
Humidity sensors operate by detecting changes in electrical currents or air temperature. Humidity sensors are classified into three basic types: capacitive, resistive, and thermal. Each of the three types will continuously monitor minute changes in the atmosphere in order to calculate the air's humidity.
By sandwiching a thin strip of metal oxide between two electrodes, a capacitive humidity sensor determines relative humidity. The electrical capacity of the metal oxide varies with the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. The primary application areas are weather, commercial, and industrial. Resistive humidity sensors measure the electrical impedance of atoms using ions in salts. The resistance of the electrodes on either side of the salt medium changes as the humidity changes. Two thermal sensors conduct electricity in response to the surrounding air's humidity. One sensor is sealed in dry nitrogen, while the other is exposed to ambient air. The difference between the two values indicates the relative humidity.
A humidity sensor is an electronic device that detects and converts the humidity in its environment to an electrical signal. Humidity sensors come in a variety of sizes and configurations; some are integrated into handheld devices (such as smartphones), while others are found in larger embedded systems (such as air quality monitoring systems). Humidity sensors are widely used in the meteorology, medical, automotive, and HVAC industries, as well as in manufacturing.
Humidity sensors are classified into two categories based on the method by which they calculate humidity: relative humidity (RH) sensors and absolute humidity (AH) sensors. The relative humidity value is determined by comparing the live humidity reading at a given temperature to the maximum amount of humidity in the air at that temperature. As a result, RH sensors must measure temperature in order to calculate relative humidity. By contrast, absolute humidity is determined independently of temperature.
The capacitive and resistive humidity sensors are the two most frequently used RH sensors. Capacitive sensors employ two electrodes to measure the capacitance (i.e., the capacity of a thin metal strip to store an electric charge) of a thin metal strip sandwiched between them. The capacitance of the metal changes in direct proportion to the change in humidity in the sensor's environment. The difference in charge (voltage) caused by increased humidity is amplified and sent to the embedded computer for processing. Resistive humidity sensors work differently. These sensors employ a small polymer comb that expands and contracts in size in response to changes in humidity, which has a direct effect on the system's ability to store charge. Absolute humidity is measured using thermal humidity sensors. Unlike RH sensors, thermal humidity sensors employ two probes: one for measuring dry nitrogen and another for measuring the ambient air. When humidity is collected on the exposed probe, the sensor detects the difference in thermal conductivity and calculates AH.
A humidity detector, also known as a humidity metre or humidity gauge, is a device equipped with a humidity sensor that measures the air's relative humidity. PCE Instruments offers a variety of humidity detector products, including handheld models, data recording or data logging models, and combination or multifunction models that also measure room or ambient temperature and atmospheric or barometric pressure. A humidity detector can measure relative humidity (RH) as a percentage (%) between 0 and 100% RH, depending on the model's humidity measurement range.
Humidity plays a critical role in a wide variety of industries, from agriculture to construction, manufacturing, transportation, warehousing, and heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACR). A relative humidity metre is also useful for assessing the risk of heat stress among workers on production floors and job sites. Additionally, humidity is critical in the residential sector. Mold can grow in a private household if the humidity level is too high. Mold poses a health risk to anyone who breathes the air in a home.
Humidity sensors are electronic devices that monitor and report on the moisture content and air temperature of the environment in which they are deployed, such as in the air, soil, or confined spaces.
Humidity readings indicate the amount of water vapour in the air. They transmit their measurements via an appropriate electronic signal. Additionally, they report relative humidity, which is the ratio of the amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount of moisture at a given temperature.
Relative humidity is beneficial for a variety of applications, including HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) and comfort optimization in Smart Buildings and Facility Management.
Modern humidity sensors support internet connectivity and can be deployed in a variety of ways in Internet of Things (IoT) applications. This enables the integration of humidity measurements with the output of other sensors (e.g., temperature sensors) and enhances the intelligence of IoT applications in a variety of industries.
The accuracy, reliability, response time, longevity, security, robustness, and ease of deployment of a humidity sensor all reflect its quality. These characteristics also influence the price of the sensor. Additionally, they influence the selection of humidity sensors for various applications.
Sensing humidity is critical, even more so during the bitterly cold winter months that many of us are currently experiencing. When humidity transmitters are installed and used properly, building automation systems can determine when the air becomes too dry or too humid for comfort.
The following sections contain critical guidelines and best practises for installing relative humidity (RH) transmitters, also known as relative humidity transducers
Install the transmitter in a location that will expose it to unrestricted air circulation representative of the controlled environment's average humidity and/or temperature.
Install the transmitter approximately 4-6 feet above the floor on an interior wall.
Avoid areas with excessive moisture, fumes, vibration, or elevated ambient temperatures. Portable electric heaters, coffee makers, computers, and copy machines are all examples of devices that generate a high ambient temperature.
Install the transmitter in such a way that the sensor probe is centred in the duct.
Ascertain that it is installed away from fans, corners, heating and cooling coils, dampers, and other equipment that could affect the relative humidity measurement.
For proper operation, the mounting location should receive adequate airflow. Due to the fact that the typical duct system incorporates an outdoor air intake, contaminants in the outdoor air may have an effect on the sensor and the frequency with which it must be calibrated.
Recommendation: Annual inspections of RH transmitters in duct systems are recommended.
The mounting location should be in a dry, sheltered area. The transmitter should ideally be located on the north side of the building (under an eave) to avoid solar-heated air rising up the building's wall and affecting the sensor's relative humidity.
Location of heat-generating condensing units and building vent & fan exhausts should be given special consideration. The heated air and possible contaminants associated with building exhaust may affect the transmitter's accuracy and may contaminate the sensor element, necessitating the unit's or sensor element's premature replacement.
Sensors for temperature and humidity are two of the most frequently used environmental sensors. Humidity sensors are also referred to as hygrometers on occasion. These instruments are used to determine the actual humidity level in the air at any given point or location. These devices are frequently used in situations where air conditions are extreme or where air conditions must be regulated for a variety of reasons.
Humidity refers to the amount of water vapour in the air. Water vapour concentrations in the air can have an effect on not only personal comfort, but also on various manufacturing processes in industrial applications. For example, moisture or humidity levels must be properly controlled and monitored in the semiconductor industry to ensure proper wafer processing. Incubators, respiratory equipment, sterilisers, and biological products all require humidity control. Additionally, water vapour may have an effect on a variety of other chemical, biological, and physical processes.
Measuring humidity levels in an environment is critical because the higher the humidity, the warmer it may appear. Humidity measurement is frequently critical in industries because it can impact both the health and safety of employees and the cost of the product. Temperature and humidity sensors, as a result, are frequently critical.
Humidity measurement is also a critical component of weather reports, as the presence of humidity indicates the possibility of dew, fog, or precipitation. Increased relative humidity diminishes the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body. This occurs as a result of the prevention of perspiration evaporation from the skin. A heat index table is used to quantify this effect. As a result, summers in areas with a higher relative humidity often feel hotter.
It is critical to keep certain specifications in mind when selecting temperature and humidity sensors. Among these factors are the following:
There are numerous types of humidity sensors; they come in a variety of sizes, operate at a variety of temperatures, and detect humidity levels with varying degrees of accuracy.
Capacitive: These sensors measure moisture levels via a humidity-dependent condenser; they are suitable for a wide range of relative humidity and have a high tolerance for condensation. This type of sensor is frequently used in industrial and commercial settings.
Resistive: These sensors are capable of detecting changes in the electrical conductivity of devices such as conductive polymers and treated substrates. They are appropriate for use in both residential and commercial settings.
Thermal Conductivity: These sensors are suitable for use in hot environments. They calibrate humidity by comparing the thermal conductivity of dry and moist air.
Temperature sensors have an almost infinite number of practical applications, both commercial and consumer. We've compiled a list of some of the most common applications for temperature sensors that you may have heard of or seen in action.
Temperature sensors have a plethora of medical applications. The most frequently considered application is within the thermometer, which is used to quickly and accurately determine an individual's temperature. They are, however, also used in a variety of medical products, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment and portable ultrasound scanners.
Temperature sensors are used in a variety of electrical appliances in our homes, from refrigerators and freezers to stoves and ovens to ensure they heat to the proper temperature for cooking, air confectioners/heaters. Even common battery chargers make use of them to prevent overcharging or undercharging the battery based on the temperature of the battery.
While oil mining may seem an unlikely application for temperature sensors, they are critical for ensuring safe and effective oil mining practises. The end of oil drills incorporates a temperature sensor that alerts workers when it is time to stop drilling, as when the temperature rises too high (as it drills deeper into the ground without pausing), it becomes too hot and breaks.
Temperature sensors are installed in the radiators of automobiles. This is critical because they alert you when the water circulating through your automobile's engine reaches an unsafely high temperature, which couldpotentially cause the engine to fail if exceeded, as well as the climate control inside the vehicle/. This is effectively avoided without putting the driver at risk by automatically adjusting parameters based on temperature.
HVAC systems require temperature measurement in order to help maintain an optimal temperature in a room or building. Temperature sensors are required for air conditioning units and systems in almost every home and office. They can also be used to detect leaks by detecting unexpected temperature anomalies.
Renewable energy sources rely on temperature sensors to operate efficiently. Solar heating pumps, wind turbines, biomass combustion applications, and geothermal sources all rely on temperature regulation and measurement.
Glass manufacturers rely on temperature measurement to regulate and optimise their manufacturing processes. The glass industry's quality requirements can be quite stringent, and in order to meet them, it is critical to keep a close eye on both the glass and the machinery being used.
Chemical industries benefit significantly from implementing and daily use of high-quality, effective temperature sensors. They are required to monitor chemical reactions at extremely high temperatures and are also used in gas chromatography. Sensors with a wide temperature range and a high degree of durability are frequently used in this sector. Precision measurement tools, in particular, are required to ensure the creation of high-quality products.
Integrated circuits rely on temperature sensors integrated into microcontrollers and other electronic components. These are widely used in a wide variety of consumer products, including desktop computers, laptops, and tablets, as well as mobile phones and other electronic devices used and owned by individuals worldwide.
To determine a sensor's accuracy, the obtained values are compared to a reference standard. To verify the accuracy of a humidity sensor, we create standards using the "saturated salt" method. Simply put, when certain salts (ionic compounds such as table salt or potassium chloride) are dissolved in water, they create an atmosphere with a known humidity.
These chemical properties are used to create micro-environments with known relative humidity (RH) percentages (i.e., reference standards), which are then read by the sensors. To be more precise, we will prepare a solution in a sealed jar to maintain the atmosphere and then place the connected sensor in the sealed jar. Following that, the sensor is read repeatedly and the values are recorded.
We can develop a profile for the sensor under test by repeating the procedure with several different salts, each of which produces a different relative humidity. Because we know the relative humidity of each microenvironment, we can compare our sensor readings to those known values and thus determine the sensor's accuracy.
If the deviations are significant but not insurmountable, we can increase the accuracy of the measurements by employing mathematical calibration procedures in software.