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1) A lightning strike can cause significant damage or disruption to electrical installations located up to several miles from the strike's actual location.
2) During a storm, underground cables can carry the effect of a lightning strike to electrical equipment inside buildings.
3) Installing a lightning protection device (such as a lightning rod or a Faraday cage) on a building to protect
it from the risk of a direct strike (fire) can increase the risk of damage to electrical equipment connected to the building's main supply near or inside.
The lightning protection device directs the high strike current to earth, significantly increasing the ground potential near the structure on which it is installed.
This results in direct and induced overvoltages on electrical equipment via the earth terminals.
Transformers, motors, and inductances in general, as well as sudden changes in load, circuit breaker disconnections, and cut outs, all result in over voltages that penetrate the user's building.
Notably, the closer the building is to a generating station or substation, the greater the possibility of over voltages.
Additionally, mutual induction effects between high voltage power lines and aerial sections of low voltage lines must be considered, as well as direct contact between lines of different voltages caused by accidental cable breakage.
These are bizarre interferences of varying amplitudes and frequencies introduced into the electrical supply by the user or his environment.
These interferences have little energy but their short duration, their steep wave front and their peak value can have harmful effects on the proper functioning of the sensitive equipment causing either disruption or complete destruction.
A transient voltage surge suppressor can be regarded as a high-speed switch that protects the device from the AC surges. It protects from the transient power system. Transient causes the high energy associated with electronic devices to fail. TVSS can be operated in most data centres, the purpose of which is the TVSS, by limiting transient voltages and electricity circuits, to eliminate or minimise damages to data processing equipment and other critical equipment. These transients can be injected from within an installation or from the outside in an installation.
Transients usually flow through electric conductors into equipment, but they also use other ways: the telephone lines, data-com lines, measuring lines and control routes. In order to avoid the TVSS system, all potential voltage threats can be connected and this voltage can be reduced to below voltage levels of the equipment.
An air-tension-sensitive transient switch monitors the input and output voltage of the AC waveform constantly. In normal conditions TVSS will not act, but if the difference of voltage between the power supply and the protected line becomes sufficiently high, the switch closes and diverses the transitory from the devices. Three transient voltages, clamping, crowbars and hybrid, have been used today.
In the clamp type, the surge path changes to a grounding point and the voltage waveform cuts off the surge when the surge is above the TVSS' rating. TVSS is usually a clamp type, but they cannot cope with a large amount of flood current. It is a quick reaction.
When compared to clamp types, the crowbars are slow, but can deal with a huge amount of surge current. It is known as crowbar because it shows a negative resistance. However, it cannot rely on a crowbar alone, as it shores the electrical system's AC power conductors into the soil which is dangerous.
The combination of crowbar and clamp may be regarded as hybrids, since they have a quick clamp response and the crowbar power capacity. They are created by an advanced process of building the two internally using fusions and current limits. This unit is very costly and needs to be carefully planned to ensure it does not damage the AC power line equipment.
Two basic types of TVSSs are connected and hardwired, and TVSS plug-in can be installed to protect special appliances or electronic devices by plugging them into wall outlets. Hard wired TVSS can be used to defend sensitive circuits primarily or an entire building as well. The TVSS plugin must be between the protected equipment and its source of power. The proper construction cabling and grounding are necessary to operate the TVSS plugin. If there is no root in a circuit, it will not be possible for the TVSS to transform the surge into a root reference. Locate the TVSS where it is easily accessible to enable us to monitor the indicator of failure. We must ensure that all driver connections from the power supply to the TVSS are kept as short and straight as possible during installation of the hard wired units.
The following installations are ideal for this type of arrester:
Surge protectors, alternatively referred to as Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors (TVSS), Surge Protection Devices (SPD), or Surge Suppression Equipment (SSE), are devices used to safeguard electrical and electronic equipment against power surges and voltage spikes. Surge protectors redirect excess voltage and current generated by transient or surge events into the grounding wire.
Surge protectors redirect excess voltage and current from transient or surge events into grounding wires, preventing them from flowing through electrical and electronic equipments while allowing normal voltage to continue along its path. This excess energy has the potential to damage electrical and electronic equipment, as well as process control instruments and equipment.
The surge protector serves two primary functions:
1. It provides a low-impedance path for conducting a large amount of current in order to eliminate the excess voltage.
2. Absorbs and diverts excess current to ground to protect against transient or surge effects.
TVSS is an older term in the electrical surge suppression industry that is still occasionally used but is more commonly referred to as SPD, or "Surge Protective Device." The term TVSS refers to a "transient voltage surge suppressor" and was recently discontinued by Underwriters Laboratories. TVSS devices, which will be referred to as SPDs for the remainder of this article, are interrupters which act as a cutoff of electrical spikes and temporary surges on AC power lines. SPD installation is not only suggested but is crucial for sensitive equipment which would sustain damage if such a surge was to happen on a connected AC power line. Today, SPDs are the most popular and widely used type of surge suppression equipment.
One of the most widespread misconceptions about SPDs is that they conserve energy; this misconception is likely due to the fact that some devices have been marketed as green technology in recent years. SPDs do not conserve energy and are only used to cut power to a piece of equipment if the power level surges above a set point, thereby protecting the equipment. The SPD does not contribute to power consumption reduction or capacity expansion; it is merely a shutoff that interrupts the power supply if necessary.
The purpose of an SPD is to protect the power system from transients. This phenomenon is more commonly referred to as a power surge, and the general public typically becomes aware of its existence only after significant damage or loss occurs. The most damaging types of power transients are caused by lightning strikes, due to the fact that they can cause significantly larger spikes in electrical current than typical fluctuations. A transient produced by a lightning strike (also known as an impulsive transient) can grow to an excess of 50,000V, and is generally able to surge to a point so great that even the installation of protection will not be enough to prevent damage to equipment. Strikesorb technology is significantly more robust than other traditional surge protection products on the market. The majority of SPD products (Silicon Avalanche Diode, Single MOV, and Gas Discharge Tubes) are designed to be destroyed (sacrificed) during a surge, preventing the majority of harmful current from reaching the machinery, and must be replaced once they have served their purpose. Strikesorb technology is engineered to withstand multiple surges while continuing to operate normally. When installed at the main service entrance, it provides the best available lightning protection.
Other types of surge-related damage can occur when transients are generated as a result of electrical switching errors or other short, sharp spikes. When power levels briefly exceed safe levels, ongoing degradation of microprocessors occurs, reducing the life of the equipment in use. It is important to extend equipment life as long as possible through protective measures in order to avoid the replacement costs associated, and to prevent downtime and data losses that can accompany electrical failures.
MOV, Gas Discharge Tube, Silicon Avalanche Diode, and combinations of these components are frequently used to reduce or limit high voltage. Each of these components has distinct characteristics, as follows:
MOVs (Metal Oxide Varistor) are made of zinc oxide, a semiconductor material with variable resistance. When the voltage is too high, the resistance of the MOV rapidly drops to provide a low impedance path of flow. MOVs have a finite life and degrade rapidly when exposed to a few large transients or a large number of smaller transients. MOVs are the most frequently used component in surge protectors.
By using inert gas as a conductor from the hot line to the ground line, a Gas Discharge Tube (GDT) can divert excess current from the line to ground. When the voltage exceeds an acceptable level, the inert gas is ionised and becomes an effective conductor, passing current to ground until the voltage returns to its normal level. GDT will conduct at a lower voltage than the high voltage used to ionise the gas and will conduct more current than other components their size. GDT has a finite life expectancy and is capable of withstanding a small number of very large transients or a large number of smaller transients.
Silicon Avalanche Diode (SAD) provides the same ideal current limiting action as a protective component, but at a lower current capacity. When the voltage exceeds the limit, SAD will tolerate avalanche breakdown, in which the excess voltage is conducted to ground.
Additional critical components such as resistors, capacitors, and/or inductors are used in conjunction with the above-mentioned protector components.
Electronic components in modern electrical devices are more sensitive to abrupt voltage and current changes in the power supply. Transients are particularly sensitive to the microprocessor, which is an integral part of computers. Electrical equipment is subjected to surges caused by alternating current power, telephone, and signal lines.
The TVSS is suitable for a variety of applications, including but not limited to the following:
Computers and peripherals such as printers and monitors Telephone lines (modem and fax machine) PABX and other communication equipment Data processing
Balance bridges and weighing equipment
Security systems Components for entertainment
OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT THAT IS SENSITIVE
Surge in Transient Voltage Suppressors are to be installed at surge-prone locations to keep them below the equipment's withstand level. ANSI C62.41 defined three levels of surge protection based on the strategic location of transients within a facility's wiring network.
The three basic components that are typically used to reduce or limit high voltage are as follows:
It is composed of zinc oxide, a semiconducting material with variable resistance. The MOV presents itself as a high impedance device during normal operating conditions. When the incoming voltage exceeds the threshold, the MOV's resistance decreases to create a low-impedance path to ground, diverting transients.
By using inert gas as a conductor to ground, GDT can divert excess current from the line to ground. While the inert gas is a poor conductor under normal conditions, it becomes ionised when the voltage is exceeded. It then acts as an effective conductor, carrying current to ground until voltages are within safe limits. Gas Discharge Tubes conduct more current for their size than other components.
SAD provides the protective component's limiting action but has a lower energy capacity. SAD will tolerate avalanche breakdown with the resulting voltage being conducted to ground if the voltage exceeds the threshold level.
The TVSS specifications will specify which component is used. Higher quality devices will use multiple components to benefit from their different characteristics (hybrid type) (hybrid type). Additionally, resistors, capacitors, and/or inductors are used with the components mentioned previously.